## Interactive Worksheet: Accruals and Prepayments

 by Ken Delaney-Moore, Sheffield Hallam University

#### Aims:

This worksheet deals with:

1. The accruals 'concept'
2. The effect of prepayments on expense accounts.
3. The effect of accruals on expense accounts.

#### The accruals concept

This is a rule, like the 'business entity concept' and 'dual aspect concept'. It means that when we calculate the profit for (say) 'Year 1', we should deduct expenses that relate to that period and only to that period. So, if during year 1 we had paid expenses for 'Year 2' or 'Year 0', we would not include these when calculating the profit for Year 1. This rule is the principle behind both prepayments and accruals.

#### For starters ...

If you didn't score 3/3, you might benefit by first having a look at the work-sheet on double - entry for assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses.

#### An example of a prepayment

A prepayment is a payment in advance of the period to which it pertains. Let's take the above example a stage further. At the 1st of April the rent for the period 1st April to 30th June becomes due and this is paid (£300 again), exactly on time. This is only a prepayment because Jim Sayers, the business owner, has decided that he wants the firms' financial year to run from 1st June to 31st May each year. So, at midnight on 31st May, he has paid one months rent in advance for next year (this being the rent for June). A look at the diagram below might help:

 Date 1 Jan 31 1 Feb 28 1 Mar 31 1 Apr 30 1 May 31 1 Jun 30 Payments 1st: £300 1st : £300 Prepayment Period covered by payment Whole period Whole period Financial year This financial year Next financial year

At the end of the year, the 'profit and loss account' is drawn-up, and after all of this the rent account will look as follows:

 RENT Debits £ Credits £ 1 1 Bank 300 1 4 Bank 300 31 5 balance c/d 600 600 600 31 5 balance b/d 600 31 5 to profit and loss a/c 500 ___ 31 5 balance c/d 100 600 600 1 6 balance b/d 100
 Q2. Have a good look at this account and try to describe what's happened by completing the paragraph below: (Type your answer)

The sequence of events can be summarised as follows:

1. Enter the amounts paid (and any refunds) as debits.
2. Balance-off the account (the trial balance is drawn-up at this stage).
3. Enter the expenditure incurred (the value of expense actually used during the period) as a credit with the description "profit and loss account"
4. Balance-off for the second time. This balance will appear in the balance sheet.

#### Some further practice in prepayments

Morgan & co. started business on 1st July 19-6 and decided to draw up its first set of 'final accounts' for the six months ending 31st Dec 19-6. The full rates charge for the year to 31st march 19-7 would have been £2400. Morgan paid for its first three months rates on 8th July, and for the next 6 months on 5th October. Both payments were by cheque.

First of all, try to visualise what has happened by using a time-chart:

 Date 1 Jul 31 1 Aug 31 1 Sep 30 1 Oct 31 1 Nov 30 1 Dec 31 Payments 8th: £600 5th : £1200 Period covered by payment Whole period Whole period and until 31st March next year Financial year This financial period: total amount of rates incurred = 6 months at £2400 per annum = 1200
 Q3. Using the above information relating to Morgan & Co., try to fill-in the gaps in the following: (Type your answer)

#### An example of an accrual ('accrued expense').

An accrual is quite simply an unpaid bill at the end of a financial period. Look at the following example:

Martin Sicey started a welders business on 1st April 2001, and used 31st March 2002 as his financial year-end. The electricity bills for his first year had been paid as follows (all payments were by cheque):

 date paid amount covering the period 2001 18th July £52 1st April to 30th June 2001 2001 16th Oct £86 1st July to 30th Sept 2001 2002 20th Jan £75 1st Oct to 31st Dec 2001 unpaid £94 1st Jan to 31st Mar 2002

At the end of the year (after the profit and loss account is drawn-up), the electricity account would look as follows:

 ELECTRICITY Date Debits £ Date Credits £ 18.07.01 bank 52 16.10.01 bank 86 20.01.02 bank 75 31.03.02 balance c/d 213 213 213 31.03.02 balance b/d 213 31.03.02 to profit and loss 307 31.03.02 balance c/d 94 ___ 307 307 01.04.02 balance b/d 94

#### Some further practice in prepayments

Winnie Welbeck's cafe had its financial year from Jan to Dec. The rent payable was £30 per week. At the start of 2001 she owed five weeks rent for the last weeks of 2000. Her payments during 2001 were as follows:

 amount date paid payment method £500 29th Jan cheque £180 3rd April cash £300 14th June cheque £150 11th August cash £ 60 5th Nov cash £430 12th Dec cheque

Note that in this question there is already an accrual at the start of the year. She owes five weeks rent (5 X £30 = £150) from last year, so this shows-up as an opening credit balance (being a liability).

This is the 'almost-finished' rent account; you will notice that a few figures are deliberately missing.

 RENT Date Debits £ Date Credits £ 29.01.01 bank 500 01.01.01 balance c/d 150 03.04.01 cash 180 14.06.01 bank 300 11.08.01 cash 150 05.11.01 cash 60 12.12.01 bank 430 31.12.01 balance c/d ?A 1620 1620 31.12.01 balance b/d ?A 31.12.01 to profit and loss ?B 31.12.01 balance c/d ?C ____ ?B ?B 01.01.02 balance b/d ?C

Now try to answer the following questions:

 Q5. a. The figure at '?A' is the trial balance figure. What should it be? [Don't enter a £ sign here]. (Type your answer)

 Q6. b. The figure at '?B' is the amount transferred (charged) to the profit and loss account. What should it be? [Remember, no £ sign]. (Type your answer)

 Q7. c. The figure at '?C' is the final balance figure, which will feature in the balance sheet. What should it be? [No £ sign]. (Type your answer)